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DAIRY

In a publication intended for general usefulness, the management of the dairy, the source of so many comforts, demands some attention, in addition to the information conveyed under various other articles, connected with this interesting part of female economy. A dairy house then ought to be so situated that the windows or lattices may front the north, and it should at all times be kept perfectly cool and clean.

Lattices are preferable to glazed lights, as they admit a free circulation of air; and if too much wind draws in, oiled paper may be pasted over the lattice, or a frame constructed so as to slide backwards and forwards at pleasure. Dairies cannot be kept too cool in the summer: they ought therefore to be erected, if possible, near a spring of running water. If a pump can be fixed in the place, or a stream of water conveyed through it, it will tend to preserve a continual freshness and purity of the air. The floor should be neatly paved with red brick, or smooth stone, and laid with a proper descent, so that no water may stagnate: it should be well washed every day, and all the utensils kept with the strictest regard to cleanliness. Neither the cheese, rennet, or cheese press, must be suffered to contract any taint; nor should the churns be scalded in the dairy, as the steam arising from the hot water tends greatly to injure the milk.

The utensils of the dairy should all be made of wood: lead, copper, and brass are poisonous, and cast iron gives a disagreeable taste to the productions of the dairy. Milk leads in particular should be utterly abolished, and well-glazed earthen pans used in their stead. Sour milk has a corroding tendency, and the well known effects of the poison of lead are, bodily debility, palsy, and death. The best of all milk vessels are flat wooden trays about three inches deep, and wide enough to contain a full gallon of milk. These may be kept perfectly clean with good care, and washing and scalding them well with salt and water. As soon as the operation of churning is performed, the butter should be washed immediately in several waters, till thoroughly cleansed from the milk, which should be forced out with a flat wooden ladle, or skimming dish, provided with a short handle.

This should be quickly performed, with as little working of the butter as possible; for if it be too much beaten and turned, it will become tough and gluey, which greatly debases its quality. To beat it up with the hand is an indelicate practice, as the butter cannot fail to imbibe the animal effluvia: a warm hand especially will soften it, and make it appear greasy. If the heat of the weather should render it too soft to receive the impression of the mould, it may be put into small vessels, and allowed to swim in a trough of cold water, provided the butter do not come in contact with the water, which would diminish some of its best qualities. A little common salt must be worked up in the butter at the time of making it, and care must be taken not to handle it too much. Meat hung in a dairy will taint the air, and spoil the milk.--See BUTTER, CHEESE, CHURNING, &c.

DAMP BEDS

Of all other means of taking cold, damp beds are the most dangerous, and persons who keep them in their houses are guilty of a species of murder, though it unfortunately happens that no housewife is willing to acknowledge that _her_ beds were ever damp. There is however no other effectual way of preventing the dreadful effects so often experienced in this way, than by keeping the beds in constant use, or causing them frequently to be slept in till they are wanted by a stranger. In inns, where the beds are used almost every night, nothing more is necessary than to keep the rooms well aired, and the linen quite dry. If a bed be suspected of dampness, introduce a glass goblet between the sheets with its bottom upwards, immediately after the warming pan is taken out. After a few minutes, if any moisture adheres to the inside of the glass, it is a certain sign that the bed is damp: but if only a slight steam appears, all is safe. If a goblet be not at hand, a looking glass will answer the purpose. The safest way in all such cases is to take off the sheets, and sleep between the blankets.

DAMP HOUSES

Nothing is more common than for persons to hazard their lives by inhabiting a dwelling almost as soon as the plasterer or the painter has performed his work, and yet this ought to be guarded against with the utmost care. The custom of sitting in a room lately washed, and before it is thoroughly dried, is also highly injurious to health. Colds occasioned by these means often bring on asthmas and incurable consumptions.

DAMP WALLS

When a house has undergone repairs, the walls are apt to become damp, as well as when it has been new built. To prevent the ill effects, powder some glass fine, mix it with slacked lime, dry the mixture well in an iron pot, and pass it through a flour sieve. Then boil some tar with a little grease for a quarter of an hour, and make a cement of the whole together. Care must be taken to prevent any moisture from mixing with the cement, which must be used as soon as made. Lay it on the damp part of the wall like common plaster about a foot square at a time, or it will quickly become too hard for use: if the wall be very wet, a second coating will be required. Common hair mortar may then be laid on, with the addition of a little Paris plaster, which will prevent the walls in future from becoming damp.

DAMSON CHEESE

Pick the damsons clean, bake them slowly, till they may be rubbed through a cullender, leaving nothing but the skins and stones. Boil the pulp and juice three hours over a slow fire, with some moist sugar, and keep it stirring to prevent burning. Blanch the kernels, and mix them with the jam a few minutes before it be taken off the fire. Put it into cups, tie it down with writing paper dipped in brandy, and the cheese will keep several years, if kept in a dry place.

DAMSON PUDDING

Line a bason with tolerably thin paste, fill with the fruit, and cover the paste over it. Tie a cloth tight over, and boil till the fruit is done enough.

DAMSON WINE

Take a considerable quantity of damsons and common plums inclining to ripeness; slit them in halves, so that the stones may be taken out, then mash them gently, and add a little water and honey. Add to every gallon of the pulp a gallon of spring water, with a few bay leaves and cloves: boil the mixture, and add as much sugar as will sweeten it, skim off the froth, and let it cool. Now press the fruit, squeezing out the liquid part; strain all through a fine cloth, and put the water and juice together in a cask. Having allowed the whole to stand and ferment for three or four days, fine it with white sugar, flour, and whites of eggs. Draw it off into bottles, then cork it well: in twelve days it will be ripe, and will taste like weak port, having a flavour of canary.

DAMSONS PRESERVED

To keep damsons for winter pies, put them in small stone jars, or wide-mouthed bottles; set them up to their necks in a boiler of cold water, and scald them. Next day, when perfectly cold, fill up the bottles with spring water, and close them down.--Another way is to boil one third as much sugar as fruit over a slow fire, till the juice adheres to the fruit, and forms a jam. Keep it in small jars in a dry place. If too sweet, mix with it some of the fruit done without sugar.--Or choose some pots of equal size top and bottom, sufficient to hold eight or nine pounds each. Put in the fruit about a quarter up, strew in a quarter of the sugar, then another quantity of fruit, and so on till all of both are in. The proportion of sugar is to be three pounds to nine pounds of fruit. Set the jars in the oven, and bake the fruit quite through. When cold, put a piece of clean-scraped stick into the middle of the jar, and let the upper part stand above the top. Cover the fruit with writing paper, and pour melted mutton-suet over, full half an inch thick. Keep the jars in a cool dry place, and use the suet as a cover, which may be drawn up by the stick, if a forked branch be left to prevent its slipping out.

DAVENPORT FOWLS

Hang up young fowls for a night. Take the liver, hearts, and tenderest parts of the gizzards, and shred them small, with half a handful of young clary, an anchovy to each fowl, an onion, and the yolks of four eggs boiled hard, seasoning the whole with pepper, salt, and mace. Stuff the fowls with this mixture, and sew up the vents and necks quite close, that the water may not get in. Boil them in salt and water till almost done; then drain them, and put them into a stewpan with butter enough to brown them. Serve them with fine melted butter, and a spoonful of ketchup of either sort, in the dish.

DEBILITY

A general relaxation of the nervous system is the source of numerous disorders, and requires a treatment as various as the causes on which it depends. In general, gentle heat possesses both stimulating and strengthening properties, and this is best communicated by a warm bath, which instead of relaxing will invigorate the whole frame. Diet must also be attended to; and weakly persons should be careful to eat light and nourishing food, and plenty of nutricious vegetables. New laid eggs, soup, strong meat-broth, and shell-fish are also very nourishing. Clothing should be accommodated to the climate and changes of weather, so as to preserve as much as possible a middle temperature between cold and heat. Invalids of this description require longer and less disturbed rest than persons in perfect health and vigour; labour and exercise adapted to their habits and strength, a clean but not too soft bed, an airy and capacious apartment, and particularly a calm and composed mind, which last possesses a most powerful influence in preserving health and life, for without tranquility, all other means will be ineffectual.

DERBYSHIRE BREAD

Rub four ounces of butter into four pounds of flour, add four eggs well beaten, a pint of milk, and a large spoonful of yeast. Mix them into a paste, make it into rolls, and let them stand half an hour to rise before the fire. Put them into the oven, dip them in milk the next day, and then let them stand by the fire in a Dutch oven about twenty minutes. The rolls will then be very good, and keep a fortnight.

DEVONSHIRE JUNKET

Put warm milk into a bowl, and turn it with rennet. Then without breaking the curd, put on the top some scalded cream, sugar and cinnamon.

DIET BREAD

Beat nine eggs, and add their weight in sifted sugar, and half as much flour. Mix them well together, grate in the rind of a lemon, and bake it in a hoop.

DIET DRINK

Infuse in five gallons of small beer, twelve ounces of red dock-roots, the pith taken out; three ounces of chicary roots, two handfuls of sage, balm, brooklime, and dandelion; two ounces of senna, two of rhubarb, four ounces of red saunders, and a few parsley and carraway seeds. Or boil a pound of the fine raspings of guaiacum, with six gallons of sweetwort, till reduced to five; and when it is set to work, put in the above ingredients. If a little salt of wormwood be taken with it, this diet drink will act as a diuretic, as well as a purgative.

DINNERS

The FIRST COURSE for large dinner parties, generally consists of various soups, fish dressed many ways, turtle, mock turtle, boiled meats and stewed: tongue, ham, bacon, chawls of bacon, boiled turkey and fowls: rump, sirloin, and ribs of beef roasted: leg, saddle, and other roast mutton: roast fillet, loin, neck, breast, and shoulder of veal: leg of lamb, loin, fore-quarter, chine, lamb's head and mince: mutton stuffed and roasted, steaks variously prepared, ragouts and fricassees: meat pies raised, and in dishes: patties of meat, fish, and fowl: stewed pigeons, venison, leg of pork, chine, loin, spare-rib, rabbits, hare, puddings, boiled and baked: vegetables, boiled and stewed: calf's head different ways, pig's feet and ears different ways.

Dishes for the SECOND COURSE, birds, and game of all sorts: shellfish, cold and potted: collared and potted fish, pickled ditto, potted birds, ribs of lamb roasted, brawn, vegetables, stewed or in sauce: French beans, peas, asparagus, cauliflower, fricassee, pickled oysters, spinach, and artichoke bottoms: stewed celery, sea kale, fruit tarts, preserved-fruit tarts, pippins stewed, cheesecakes, various sorts: a collection of sweet dishes, creams, jellies, mince pies, and all the finer sorts of puddings: omlet, macaroni, oysters in scallops, stewed or pickled.

For removes of soup and fish, one or two joints of meat or fowl are served; and for one small course, the article suited to the second must make a part. Where vegetables, fowls, or any other meat are twice dressed, they add to the appearance of the table the first time; and three sweet articles may form the second appearance, without greater expence. In some houses, one dish at a time is sent up with the vegetables, or sauces proper to it, and this in succession hot and hot. In others, a course of soups and fish: then meats and boiled fowls, turkey, &c. Made dishes and game follow; and lastly, sweet dishes; but these are not the common modes. It ought also to be remarked, that cooks in general do not think of sending up such articles as are in the house, unless ordered; though by so doing, the addition of something collared or pickled, some fritters, fried patties, or quick-made dumplings, would be useful when there happen to be accidental visitors: and at all times it is proper to improve the appearance of the table rather than let things spoil below, by which an unnecessary expence is incurred.--Any of the following articles may be served as a relish, with the cheese, after dinner. Baked or pickled fish done high, Dutch pickled herrings: sardinias, which eat like anchovy, but are larger: anchovies, potted char, ditto lampreys: potted birds made high, caviare and sippets of toast: salad, radishes, French pie, cold butter, potted cheese, anchovy toast.

DISTRESS FOR RENT

In these days of general complaint and general distress, when so many families and individuals are suffering from the extortions of tax-gatherers, and the severity of landlords, it is proper that householders and occupiers of land should be furnished with a little information on the subject of their legal rights and liabilities, in order to guard against injustice, or the fatal consequences of illegal proceedings. It must therefore be observed, that rent is recoverable by action of debt at common law; but the general remedy is distress, by taking the goods and chattels out of the possession of the tenant, to procure satisfaction for rent. A distress for rent therefore must be made for nonpayment, or rent in arrears, and cannot be made on the day in which the rent becomes due. Neither can distress be made after the rent has been tendered; or if it be tendered while the distress is making, the landlord must deliver up the distress. Any goods or effects that are damaged by the proceedings of the landlord, must be made good by him.

When distress is levied, it should be for the whole of the rent in arrears; not a part at one time and the remainder at another, if there was at first a sufficiency; but if the landlord should mistake the value of the things, he may make a second distress to supply the deficiency. He must be careful to demand neither more nor less than is due; he must also shew the certainty of the rent, and when it was due; otherwise the demand will not be good, nor can he obtain a remedy.

A landlord may distrain whatever he finds on the premises, whether it be the property of his tenant or not, except such things as are for the maintenance and benefit of trade; such as working tools and implements, sacks of corn, or meal in a mill. Neither fixtures in a house nor provisions can be distrained, nor any other article which cannot be restored in as good a state as when it was taken; but wearing apparel may be distrained when they are not in use. Money out of a bag cannot be distrained, because it cannot be known again; but money sealed up in a bag may. A horse in a cart cannot be distrained, without also taking the cart; and if a man be in the cart, these cannot be taken. A horse bringing goods to market, goods brought to market to be sold, goods for exportation on a wharf or in a warehouse, goods in the hands of a factor, goods delivered to a carrier to be conveyed for hire, wool in a neighbour's barn, are all considered as goods in the hands of a third person, and cannot therefore be distrained by a landlord for rent. But goods left at an inn or other place of conveyance, a chaise or horse standing in a stable, though the property of a third person, may be distrained for rent. A distress must not be made after dark, nor on the Sabbath day.

Where a landlord means to distrain for rent, it is not necessary to demand his rent first, unless the tenant is on the premises on the day of payment, and ready to pay it. But if goods are distrained, and no cause given for so doing, the owner may rescue them, if not impounded. Distraining part of the goods for rent in arrear, in the name of the whole goods, will be deemed a lawful seizure. But if distress and sale be made for rent when it can be proved that no rent is due or in arrear, the person so injured may recover double the value of such goods distrained, with full costs of suit. If goods be impounded, though they have been distrained without a cause, a tenant cannot touch them, because they are then in the hands of the law; but if not impounded or taken away, he is at liberty to rescue them.

If distress be made for rent, and the goods are not replevied within five days after the distress is made, and notice left on the premises stating the cause of such distress, the person distraining may have the goods appraised by two persons, sworn by the constable of the place for that purpose, and may after such appraisement sell them to the best advantage. The rent may then be taken, including all expences, and the overplus left in the hands of the constable for the owner's use. If a landlord commit an unlawful act or any other irregularity, in making distress for rent which is justly due, the distress itself will not on that account be deemed unlawful; but full damages may be demanded by the injured party, with full costs of suit; either in an action of trespass, or on the case. But if full recompense be tendered to the tenant for such trespass before the action is commenced, he is bound to accept it, or the action will be discharged.

If a tenant clandestinely remove his goods, to prevent the landlord from distraining them for rent, he may seize the goods within thirty days, wherever they shall be found; and if not actually sold previous to the seizure, he may dispose of them in order to recover his rent. Any tenant or assistant removing goods to prevent a distress, is liable to double the value of the goods, which the landlord may recover by action at law. If under the value of fifty pounds, complaint may be made in writing to two neighbouring magistrates, who will enforce the payment by distress, or commit the offenders to the house of correction for six months. If any person after the distress is made, shall presume to remove the goods distrained, or take them away from the person distraining, the party aggrieved may sue for the injury, and recover treble costs and damages against the offender.

A landlord may not break a lock, nor open a gate; but if the outer door of the house be open he may enter, and break open the inner doors. But where goods are fraudulently removed, and locked up to prevent their being seized, the landlord may break open every place where they are and seize them. If in a dwelling house, an oath must first be made before a magistrate, that is was suspected the goods were lodged there. The most eligible way is to remove the goods immediately, and to give the tenant notice where they are removed to; but it is usual to leave them under the protection of a person on the premises for five whole days, after which it is lawful to sell them. In making the distress, it is necessary to give the bailiff a written order for that purpose, which the landlord may do himself without any stamp, only specifying the person's name, place of abode, and rent in arrears for which the goods and chattels are to be seized. After this an inventory is to be made of the articles, a copy of which is to be given to the tenant, accompanied with a notice that unless the arrears of rent and charges of distress be paid, or the goods replevied at the expiration of five days from the day of distress, the said goods will be appraised and sold according to law. If the landlord chooses to indulge the tenant with a longer time to raise the money, a memorandum must be taken of the tenant, stating that possession is lengthened at his request, or the landlord will be liable to an action for exceeding the time of his original notice.--See TENANTS.

DOUBLE RENT

If a tenant has received a written notice, and he refuse to quit, after such notice has been regularly served, and will not give possession at the time required, he is liable to pay at the rate of double the annual value of the land or tenement so detained, for so long time as the same are detained in his possession, and the payment may be recovered by action of debt. Or if the tenant shall give notice of his intention to quit the premises, and do not deliver up possession according to such notice, he is liable to the payment of double rent, as in the other case.

The following is the form of a notice to a tenant to quit, or to pay double rent. 'Mr. A. B. I hereby give you notice to deliver up possession and quit, on or before next Michaelmas day, the house and premises which you now hold of me, situate in the parish of ------in the county of ------: and in default of your compliance therewith, I do and will insist on your paying me for the same, the yearly rent of ------ being double the annual rent, for such time as you shall detain the key, and keep possession, over the said notice. Witness my hand this day of ------ 182-.   C. D. Landlord of the said premises.

Witness E. F.'--If, after notice of double rent be expired, a single rent is accepted, such acceptance will prevent the penalty, until notice is again given, and the time expired.

DOWN

This valuable part of goose coating, which contributes so much to the comfort and even the luxury of life, comes to maturity when it begins to fall off of itself; and if removed too soon, it is liable to be attacked by worms. Lean geese furnish more than those that are fat, and the down is more valuable. Neither the feathers nor the down of geese which have been dead some time are fit for use: they generally smell bad, and become matted. None but what is plucked from living geese, or which have just been killed, ought to be exhibited for sale; and in this case the down should be plucked soon, or before the geese are entirely cold.

DRAUGHT FOR A COUGH

Beat a fresh-laid egg, and mix it with a quarter of a pint of new milk warmed, but do not heat it after the egg is put in. Add a large spoonful of capillaire, the same of rose water, and a little nutmeg scraped. Take it the first and last thing, and it will be found a fine soft draught for those who are weakly, or have a cold.

Another remedy. Take a handful of horehound, a handful of rue, a handful of hyssop, and the same quantity of ground ivy and of tormentil, with a small quantity of long plantain, pennyroyal, and five finger. Boil them in four quarts of water till reduced to two quarts. Strain it off, then add two pounds of loaf sugar; simmer it a little, add a quart of brandy and bottle it for use. A wine glassful of this to be taken occasionally.

DRIED BACON

When two flitches are to be cured, divide the hog, cut off the hams, and take out the chine. It is common to remove the spare-ribs, but the bacon will be preserved better from being rusty, if they are left in. Salt the bacon six days, then drain it from that first pickle: mix a proper quantity of salt with half a pound of bay-salt, three ounces of saltpetre, and a pound of coarse sugar, to each hog. Rub the salts well in, and turn it every day for a month. Drain and smoke it for a few days, or dry it with bran or flour, and hang it in the kitchen, or on a rack suspended from the ceiling.

Good bacon may be known, if you are going to purchase it, by the rind being thin, the fat firm, and of a red tinge, the lean tender, of a good colour, and adhering to the bone. If there are yellow streaks in it, it is going, if not already rusty.

DRIED CHERRIES

Stone six pounds of Kentish cherries, and put them into a preserving pan with two pounds of loaf sugar pounded and strewed among them. Simmer them till they begin to shrivel, then strain them from the juice, lay them on a hot hearth or in an oven, when either is cool enough to dry without baking them. The same syrup will do another six pounds of fruit.

To dry cherries without sugar, stone, and set them over the fire in a preserving pan. Simmer them in their own liquor, and shake them in the pan. Put them by in common china dishes: next day give them another scald, and when cold put them on sieves to dry, in an oven moderately warm. Twice heating, an hour each time, will be sufficient. Place them in a box, with a paper between each layer.

A superior way of preserving cherries is to allow one pound of double-refined sugar to every five pounds of fruit, after they are stoned; then to put both into a preserving pan with very little water, till they are scalding hot. Take the fruit out immediately and dry them; return them into the pan again, strewing the sugar between each layer of cherries. Let it stand to melt, then set the pan on the fire, and make it scalding hot as before; take it off, and repeat this thrice with the sugar. Drain them from the syrup, and lay them singly to dry on dishes, in the sun or on a stove. When dry, put them into a sieve, dip it into a pan of cold water, and draw it instantly out again, and pour them on a fine soft cloth; dry them, and set them once more in the sun, or on a stove. Keep them in a box, with layers of white paper, in a dry place. This is the best way to give plumpness to the fruit, as well as colour and flavour.

DRIED HADDOCK

Choose them of two or three pounds weight; take out the gills, eyes, and entrails, and remove the blood from the backbone. Wipe them dry, and put some salt into the bodies and sockets. Lay them on a board for a night, then hang them up in a dry place, and after three or four days they will be fit to eat. Skin and rub them with egg, and strew crumbs over them. Lay them before the fire, baste with butter till they are quite brown, and serve with egg sauce.

Whitings, if large, are excellent in this way; and where there is no regular supply of fish, it will be found a great convenience.

DRIED SALMON

Cut the fish down, take out the inside and roe. After scaling it, rub it with common salt, and let it hang twenty-four hours to drain. Pound three or four ounces of saltpetre, according to the size of the fish, two ounces of bay salt, and two ounces of coarse sugar. Mix them well, rub it into the salmon, and lay it on a large dish for two days; then rub it with common salt, wipe it well after draining, and in twenty-four hours more it will be fit to dry. Hang it either in a wood chimney, or in a dry place, keeping it open with two small sticks.

Dried salmon is broiled in paper, and only just warmed through. Egg sauce and mashed potatoes may be eaten with it; or it may be boiled, especially the part next the head. An excellent dish of dried salmon may also be made in the following manner. Prepare some eggs boiled hard and chopped large, pull off some flakes of the fish, and put them both into half a pint of thin cream, with two or three ounces of butter rubbed in a tea-spoonful of flour. Skim and stir it till boiling hot, make a wall of mashed potatoes round the inner edge of a dish, and pour the above into it.

DRINK FOR THE SICK

Pour a table-spoonful of capillaire, and the same of good vinegar, into a tumbler of fresh cold water. Tamarinds, currants, fresh or in jelly, scalded currants or cranberries, make excellent drinks; with a little sugar or not, as most agreeable. Or put a tea-cupful of cranberries into a cup of water, and mash them. In the meantime boil two quarts of water with one large spoonful of oatmeal, and a bit of lemon peel; then add the cranberries, and as much fine Lisbon sugar as shall leave a smart flavour of the fruit. Add a quarter of a pint of sherry, or less, as may be proper: boil all together for half an hour, and strain off the drink.

DRIPPING

If carefully preserved, will baste every thing as well as butter, except fowls and game; and for kitchen pies nothing else should be used. The fat of a neck or loin of mutton makes a far lighter pudding than suet.

DRIPPING CRUST

Rub a pound of clarified dripping into three pounds of fine flour, and make it into a paste with cold water. Or make a hot crust with the same quantity, by melting the dripping in water, and mixing it hot with the flour.

DROP CAKES

Rub half a pound of butter into a pound of fine flour; mix it with half a pound of sugar, and the same of currants. Mix it into a paste, with two eggs, a large spoonful of rose water, brandy, and sweet wine; and put it on plates ready floured.

DROPSY

Gentle exercise and rubbing the parts affected, are highly proper in this complaint, and the tepid bath has often procured considerable relief. The patient ought to live in a warm dry place, not expose himself to cold or damp air, and wear flannel next the skin. Vegetable acids, such as vinegar, the juice of lemons and oranges, diluted with water, should be drank in preference to wine or spirits, either of which are generally hurtful. The diet should be light and nourishing, easy of digestion, and taken in moderation. Horseradish, onions and garlic, may be used instead of foreign spices; but tea, coffee, and punch, are alike improper.

DROWNING 

If a person unfortunately fall into the water, and is supposed to be drowned, he should be carefully undressed as soon as he is taken out; then laid on a bed or mattrass in a warm apartment, with the head and upper part a little raised, and the nostrils cleaned with a feather dipped in oil. Let the body be gently rubbed with common salt, or with flannels dipped in spirits; the pit of the stomach fomented with hot brandy, the temples stimulated with spirits of hartshorn, and bladders of lukewarm water applied to different parts of the body, or a warming-pan wrapped in flannel gently moved along the back. A warm bath, gradually increased to seventy-five degrees, would be highly proper; or the body may be carried to a brewhouse, and covered up with warm grains for an hour or two. An attempt should be made to inflate the lungs, either by the help of a pair of bellows, or a person's blowing with his mouth through the nostril, which in the first instance is much better.

If the patient be very young, or the animation do not appear altogether suspended, he may be placed in bed between two persons to promote natural warmth, or covered with blankets or warm flannels. Stimulating clysters of warm water and salt, or six ounces of brandy, should be speedily administered. The means should be persevered in for several hours, as there are instances of persons recovering after all hope was given up, and they had been abandoned by their attendants. As soon as the first symptoms of life are discernible, care must be taken to cherish the vital action by the most gentle and soothing means.

Fomentations of aromatic plants may then be applied to the pit of the stomach, bladders of warm water placed to the left side, the soles of the feet rubbed with salt, and a little white wine dropped on the tongue. The patient should then be left in a quiet state till able to drink a little warm wine, or tea mixed with a few drops of vinegar. The absurd practice of rolling persons on casks, lifting the feet over the shoulders, and suffering the head to remain downwards, in order to discharge the water, has occasioned the loss of many lives, as it is now fully and clearly established, that the respiration being impeded is in this case the sole cause of the suspension of life; and which being restored, the vital functions soon recover their tone. No attempt must be made to introduce liquor of any kind into the mouth, till there are strong signs of recovery.

DUCKS

In rearing this species of poultry, they should be accustomed to feed and rest in one place, to prevent their straggling too far to lay. Places near the water to lay in are advantageous, and these might consist of small wooden houses, with a partition in the middle, and a door at each end. They generally begin to lay in the month of February. Their eggs should be daily taken away except one, till they seem inclined to set, and then they should be left with a sufficient quantity of eggs under them. They require no attention while setting, except to give them food at the time they come out to seek it; and water should be placed at a convenient distance, that their eggs may not be spoiled by their long absence in seeking it. Twelve or thirteen eggs will be sufficient. In an early season it is best to place them under a hen, that the ducks may have less time for setting, for in cold weather they cannot so well be kept from the water, and would scarcely have strength to bear it. They should be placed under cover, especially in a wet season; for though water is the natural element of ducks, yet they are apt to be killed by the cramp before they are covered with feathers to defend them. Ducks will eat any thing; and when to be fatted, they should have plenty of food, however coarse it may be, and in three weeks they will be ready.

DUCK PIE

Bone a full-grown young duck and a fowl. Wash and season them with pepper and salt, and a small proportion of mace and allspice in the finest powder. Put the fowl within the duck, and in the former a calf's tongue, boiled very tender and peeled. Press the whole close, and draw the legs inwards, that the body of the fowl may be quite smooth. The space between the sides of the crust may be filled with fine forcemeat, the same as for savoury pies. Bake it in a slow oven, either in a raised crust or pie dish, with a thick ornamented crust. Large Staffordshire pies are made as above, but with a goose outwards, then a turkey, a duck next, then a fowl; and either tongue, small birds, or forcemeat in the middle.

DUCK SAUCE

Put a rich gravy into the dish, and slice the breast. Cut a lemon, put on it some pepper and salt, squeeze it on the breast, and pour a spoonful of gravy over the meat, before it is sent round.--See ROAST DUCK.

DUN BIRDS

Roast and baste them with butter, and sprinkle a little salt before they are taken up. Pour a good gravy over them, and serve with shalot sauce in a boat.

DUNELM OF VEAL

Stew a few small mushrooms in their own liquor and a bit of butter, a quarter of an hour. Mince them fine, and put them with their liquor to some cold minced veal. Add a little pepper and salt, some cream, and a bit of butter rubbed in less than half a tea-spoonful of flour. Simmer the mince three or four minutes, and serve it on thin sippets of bread. Cold fowl may be treated in the same manner.

DUTCH BEEF

Take a lean piece of beef, rub it well with treacle or brown sugar, and let it be turned often. In three days wipe it, and salt it with common salt and saltpetre beaten fine: rub these well in, and turn it every day for a fortnight. Roll it tight in a coarse cloth, and press it under a large weight: hang it to dry in a wood smoke, but turn it upside down every day. Boil it in pump water, and press it: it will then grate or cut into shivers, like Dutch beef.

DUTCH FLUMMERY

Boil two ounces of isinglass in a pint and half of water very gently half an hour; add a pint of white wine, the juice of three lemons, and the thin rind of one. Rub a few lumps of sugar on another lemon to obtain the essence, and add with them a sufficient quantity of sugar to sweeten. Beat up the yolks of seven eggs, mix it with the above, and give them together one scald. Keep the flummery stirring all the time, pour it into a bason, stir it till half cold, let it settle, and then put it into a melon shape.

DUTCH PUDDING

Melt a pound of butter in half a pint of milk; mix it into two pounds of flour, eight eggs, and four spoonfuls of yeast. Add a pound of currants, and a quarter of a pound of sugar beaten and sifted, and bake it an hour in a quick oven. This is a very good pudding hot, and equally so as a cake when cold. If for the latter, carraways must be used instead of currants.

DUTCH RICE PUDDING

Soak four ounces of rice in warm water half an hour; drain away the water, put the rice into a stew pan, with half a pint of milk, and half a stick of cinnamon, and simmer it till tender. When cold, add four eggs well beaten, two ounces of butter melted in a tea-cupful of cream; and add three ounces of sugar, a quarter of a nutmeg, and a good piece of lemon peel. Put a light puff paste into a mould or dish, or grated tops and bottoms, and bake in a quick oven.

DUTCH WAFFLES

These form a delicious article in the shape of puff cakes, which are instantly prepared and exhibited for sale in stalls or tents, in the fairs of Holland, where they are eaten hot as they come from the plate or baking pan, with fine sugar strewed over them. Mix together three pounds of fine flour, a dozen eggs, a pound of melted butter, half a pint of ale, some milk, and a little yeast. Beat it well, till it forms a thick paste, and let it stand three or four hours before the fire to rise. Lay it in small pieces on a hot iron or frying pan, with a pair of buttered tongs, till it is lightly browned. Eat the waffles with fine sugar sifted over, or a little sack and melted butter.

DYEING

Nankeen dye is made of equal parts of arnetto and common potash, dissolved in boiling water. To dye cotton, silk, woollen, or linen of a beautiful yellow, the plant called weld, or dyer's weed, is used for that purpose. Blue cloths dipped in a decoction of it will become green. The yellow colour of the Dutch pink is obtained from the juice of the stones and branches of the weld. Black dye is obtained from a strong decoction of logwood, copperas, and gum arabic. Oak saw-dust, or the excrescences on the roots of young oaks, may be used as a substitute for galls, both in making ink and black dye.