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The Egyptian dynasty was one of the most advanced in the history of the world, with their creation of huge structures such as pyramids, without the use of proper construction equipment, their forms of communication, roads and more. The Egyptians were one of the earliest civilisations in the world, and stood their ground against many obstacles throughout their existence. It wasn’t until Egypt fell to the Romans and became a Roman province when the ancient civilisation became entwined with European culture, but after this happened, Egypt’s history becomes slightly more blurred. If you’re interested in Ancient Egypt, then the Book of Ra slots quiz could be the perfect way for you to spend your time. 

It was during the 18th century that the Egyptians had to defend their country against invaders from the likes of Napoleon. Due to Napoleon’s hate of Britain at the time, the conqueror invaded Egypt as an indirect method of harming British imperial interests. Napoleon had previously ventured into a campaign against Austria and won the Battle of Lodi, the Battle of Arcole and the Battle of Rivoli, returning to Paris a hero before his venture into Egypt. 

At the time, Egypt were entirely Ottoman after Ottoman sultan Selim I captured Cairo in 1517. The Ottoman Empire was one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history and was inspired and sustained by Islam. At the height of its power, the Ottomans controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. After capturing Egypt, the Empire created a naval presence on the Red Sea. 

Egypt suffered many famines throughout the 18th century, and the 1784 famine cost the country approximately one sixth of its population, although it was still recovering from its weakened economic system and effects of the plagues from a few centuries prior.

In order to justify his invasion into Egypt in 1798, Napoleon proclaimed an invasion would defend French trade interests, by undermining Britain’s access to India and establishing scientific enterprise. Egypt at the time of invasion, although an Ottoman province, was not actually under direct Ottoman control and there was a lot of tension in the country due to the Mamluk elite. 

18th century Egypt had supposedly influenced fashion in France, and many intellectuals saw Egypt was the cradle of western civilisation. In addition to this, French traders in the River Nile were complaining of harassment from the Mamluks; another reason why Napoleon deemed it the right time to invade the country. 

Napoleon’s fleet landed in Alexandria, and the army marched through the desert in the height of summer, to Cairo, with a fleet behind them following on sea. However, Napoleon’s fleet blew into the path of an enemy fleet supported by musket fire from 4,000 Mamluks. Although the French fleet had numerical superiority, they lost 600 on the battlefield after charging the village of Chebreiss. After this battle, with an exhausted army, Napoleon decided to draw up his 25,000 troops for battle around nine miles from the Pyramids of Giza – the battle is now known as the Battle of The Pyramids. During this battle, there was a French victory over an enemy force of 21,000 Mamluks. 

It was after this that Napoleon was given control of the city of Cairo after it had been abandoned by the beys Murad and Ibrahim. After various naval and land battles and victories in Egypt, Napoleon began to behave as the absolute ruler of all Egypt, despite not having the support of the Egyptian population. In October 1798, there was a revolt from the people, and they attacked and mercilessly killed any Frenchmen they met after spreading weapons amongst themselves. The British were also attacking the French fleets, but Napoleon managed to push them and the Egyptian population back and remain in control of Egypt. 

After a stint in Syria, where Napoleon had forced his troops into many more battle leaving the army in a critical condition, he returned to Egypt and was faced with a new land battle with Murad Bey, the bey who had fled when he first arrived in Cairo. This led to the land battle of Abukir. Although Napoleon won this battle, it was his last stint in Egypt, before returning to France, after feeling that there was nothing left for his campaign and ambitions in the country. 

After Napoleon left the country, the Ottoman Empire once again took hold with the help of the British Empire and completely expelled the French from the country.

About the Author: Samuel Jackson for many years worked as an advisor for businesses across Europe and Asia. Now he invests his money wisely in property, oil and new business. Sam frequently writes blogs helping people mirror his financial success.