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Take a look at what happened on this day in history for the month of January.


January 1

1700 – Russia begins using the Anno Domini era and no longer uses the Anno Mundi era of the Byzantine Empire.

1707 – John V is crowned King of Portugal.

1739 – Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier.

1766 - The Old Pretender, son of James III, dies.

1772 – The first traveler's cheques, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London, England.

1773 – The hymn that became known as "Amazing Grace", then titled "1 Chronicles 17:16–17" is first used to accompany a sermon led by John Newton in the town of Olney, England.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: Norfolk, Virginia is burned by combined Royal Navy and Continental Army action.

1781 – American Revolutionary War: One thousand five hundred soldiers of the 6th Pennsylvania Regiment under General Anthony Wayne's command rebel against the Continental Army's winter camp in Morristown, New Jersey in the Pennsylvania Line Mutiny of 1781.

1788 – First edition of The Times of London, previously The Daily Universal Register, is published.

1801 – The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

1801 – The dwarf planet Ceres is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi.

1803 – Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Son dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Hu?, Vietnam.

1804 – French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and the second independent country in North America after the United States

1806 – The French Republican Calendar is abolished.

1808 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.

1810 – Major-General Lachlan Macquarie officially becomes Governor of New South Wales

1812 – The Bishop of Durham, Shute Barrington, orders troops from Durham Castle to break up a miners' strike in Chester-le-Street, Co. Durham

1822 – The Greek Constitution of 1822 is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus.

1824 - The Camp Street Theatre opens as the first English-language playhouse in New Orleans.

1831 - William Lloyd Garrison publishes the first edition of a journal entitled The Liberator, calling for the complete and immediate emancipation of all slaves in the United States.

1833 – The United Kingdom claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

1840 - The first recorded bowling match was recorded in the U.S. 

January 2

1776 - Congress publishes the Tory Act

1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces under the command of George Washington repulsed a British attack at the Battle of the Assunpink Creek near Trenton, New Jersey.

1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution.

1791 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.

1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.

1833 – Reassertion of British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

January 3

1749 – Benning Wentworth issues the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the establishment of Vermont.

1749 – The first issue of Berlingske, Denmark's oldest continually operating newspaper, is published.

1777 – American General George Washington defeats British General Lord Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.

1815 – Austria, the United Kingdom, and France form a secret defensive alliance against Prussia and Russia.

1823 – Stephen F. Austin receives a grant of land in Texas from the government of Mexico.

1825 - The first engineering college in the U.S. , Rensselaer School, opened in Troy, NY. It is now known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. 

1833 - Britain seized control of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic. About 150 years later, Argentina seized the islands from the British, but Britain took them back after a 74-day war. 

January 4

1717 – The Netherlands, Great Britain, and France sign the Triple Alliance.

1762 – Great Britain declares war on Spain and Naples.

1798 – Constantine Hangerli arrives in Bucharest, Wallachia, as its new Prince, invested by the Ottoman Empire.

January 5

1675 – Battle of Colmar: the French army beats Brandenburg.

1757 – Louis XV of France survives an assassination attempt by Robert-François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France by drawing and quartering, the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides.

1781 – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.

January 6

 1690 – Joseph, son of Emperor Leopold I, becomes King of the Romans.

1721 – The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings.

1781 – In the Battle of Jersey, the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey.

1809 – Combined British, Portuguese and colonial Brazilian forces begin the Invasion of Cayenne during the Napoleonic Wars.

1838 – Alfred Vail demonstrates a (forerunner of Morse Code), telegraph system using dots and dashes.

1839 – The most damaging storm in 300 years sweeps across Ireland, damaging or destroying more than 20% of the houses in Dublin.

January 7

 1782 – The first American commercial bank, the Bank of North America, opens.

1785 – Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in a gas balloon.

1797 – The modern Italian flag is first used.

1835 – HMS Beagle drops anchor off the Chonos Archipelago.

January 8

 1697 – Last execution for blasphemy in Britain; of Thomas Aikenhead, student, at Edinburgh.

1735 – Premiere performance of George Frideric Handel's Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden.

1746 – Second Jacobite rising: Bonnie Prince Charlie occupies Stirling.

1790 – George Washington delivers the first State of the Union address in New York, New York.

1806 – Cape Colony becomes a British colony.

1811 – An unsuccessful slave revolt is led by Charles Deslondes in St. Charles and St. James, Louisiana.

1815 – War of 1812: Battle of New Orleans – Andrew Jackson leads American forces in victory over the British.

1835 – The United States national debt is zero for the only time.

January 9

 1760 – Afghans defeat Marathas in the Battle of Barari Ghat.

1788 – Connecticut becomes the fifth state to be admitted to the United States.

1793 – Jean-Pierre Blanchard becomes the first person to fly in a balloon in the United States.

1799 – British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger introduces an income tax of two shillings to the pound to raise funds for Great Britain's war effort in the Napoleonic Wars.

1806 – Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson receives a state funeral and is interred in St Paul's Cathedral.

1816 – Sir Humphry Davy tests his safety lamp for miners at Hebburn Colliery.

1822 – The Portuguese prince Pedro I of Brazil decides to stay in Brazil against the orders of the Portuguese King João VI, beginning the Brazilian independence process.

1839 – The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process.

January 10

1776 – Thomas Paine publishes his pamphlet Common Sense.

1791 – The Siege of Dunlap's Station begins near Cincinnati during the Northwest Indian War.

1806 – Dutch settlers in Cape Town surrender to the British.

1810 – Napoleon Bonaparte divorces his first wife Joséphine.

January 11

1693 – A powerful earthquake destroys parts of Sicily and Malta.

1759 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the first American life insurance company is incorporated.

1779 – Ching-Thang Khomba is crowned King of Manipur.

1782 – American Revolutionary War: French troops begin a siege of a British garrison on Brimstone Hill in Saint Kitts.

1787 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, two moons of Uranus.

1805 – The Michigan Territory is created. 

January 12

1777 – Mission Santa Clara de Asís is founded in what is now Santa Clara, California.

1808 – The organizational meeting that led to the creation of the Wernerian Natural History Society, a former Scottish learned society, is held in Edinburgh, Scotland.

1808 – John Rennie's scheme to defend St Mary's Church, Reculver, founded in 669, from coastal erosion was abandoned in favour of demolition, despite the church being an exemplar of Anglo-Saxon architecture and sculpture.

January 13

1793 – Nicolas Jean Hugon de Bassville, representative of Revolutionary France, lynched by a mob in Rome

1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: A naval battle between a French ship of the line and two British frigates off the coast of Brittany ends with the French vessel running aground, resulting in over 900 deaths.

1815 – War of 1812: British troops capture Fort Peter in St. Marys, Georgia, the only battle of the war to take place in the state.

1822 – The design of the Greek flag is adopted by the First National Assembly at Epidaurus.

1830 – The Great Fire of New Orleans begins.

1833 – United States President Andrew Jackson writes to Vice President Martin Van Buren expressing his opposition to South Carolina's defiance of federal authority in the Nullification Crisis.

1840 – The steamship Lexington burns and sinks four miles off the coast of Long Island with the loss of 139 lives. 

January 14

 1724 – King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne.

1761 – The Third Battle of Panipat is fought in India between the Afghans under Ahmad Shah Durrani and the Marathas.

1784 – American Revolutionary War: Ratification Day, United States - Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with Great Britain.

1814 – Treaty of Kiel: Frederick VI of Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden in return for Pomerania.

1822 – Greek War of Independence: Acrocorinth is captured by Theodoros Kolokotronis and Demetrios Ypsilantis.

January 15

 1759 – The British Museum opens.

1777 – American Revolutionary War: New Connecticut (present day Vermont) declares its independence.

1782 – Superintendent of Finance Robert Morris goes before the U.S. Congress to recommend establishment of a national mint and decimal coinage.

1815 – War of 1812: American frigate USS President, commanded by Commodore Stephen Decatur, is captured by a squadron of four British frigates.

1822 – Greek War of Independence: Demetrios Ypsilantis is elected president of the legislative assembly.

January 16

 1707 – The Scottish Parliament ratifies the Act of Union, paving the way for the creation of Great Britain.

1761 – The British capture Pondichéry, India from the French.

1780 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.

1786 – Virginia enacted the Statute for Religious Freedom authored by Thomas Jefferson.

1809 – Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of La Coruña.

January 17

1773 – Captain James Cook and his crew become the first Europeans to sail below the Antarctic Circle.

1781 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cowpens – Continental troops under Brigadier General Daniel Morgan defeat British forces under Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton at the battle in South Carolina.

1799 – Maltese patriot Dun Mikiel Xerri, along with a number of other patriots, is executed.

1811 – Mexican War of Independence: In the Battle of Calderón Bridge, a heavily outnumbered Spanish force of 6,000 troops defeats nearly 100,000 Mexican revolutionaries. 

January 18

 1670 – Henry Morgan captures Panama.

1701 – Frederick I crowns himself King of Prussia in Königsberg.

1778 – James Cook is the first known European to discover the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the "Sandwich Islands".

1788 – The first elements of the First Fleet carrying 736 convicts from England to Australia arrive at Botany Bay.

January 19

1764 – John Wilkes is expelled from the British House of Commons for seditious libel.

1788 – The second group of ships of the First Fleet arrive at Botany Bay.

1795 – The Batavian Republic is proclaimed in the Netherlands bringing to an end the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.

1806 – The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope.

1812 – Peninsular War: After a ten-day siege, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, orders British soldiers of the Light and third divisions to storm Ciudad Rodrigo.

1817 – An army of 5,423 soldiers, led by General José de San Martín, crosses the Andes from Argentina to liberate Chile and then Peru.

1829 – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust: The First Part of the Tragedy receives its premiere performance.

1839 – The British East India Company captures Aden.

1840 – Captain Charles Wilkes circumnavigates Antarctica, claiming what became known as Wilkes Land for the United States. 

January 20

 1649 – Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other "high crimes".

1783 – The Kingdom of Great Britain signs a peace treaty with France and Spain, officially ending hostilities in the American Revolutionary War (also known as the American War of Independence).

1785 – Invading Siamese forces attempt to exploit the political chaos in Vietnam, but are ambushed and annihilated at the Mekong river by the Tây Sơn in the Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút.

1788 – The third and main part of First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip decides that Botany Bay is unsuitable for the location of a penal colony, and decides to move to Port Jackson.

1839 – In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats an alliance between Peru and Bolivia.

January 21

1720 – Sweden and Prussia sign the Treaty of Stockholm.

1749 – The Teatro Filarmonico in Verona is destroyed by fire. It is rebuilt in 1754.

1774 – Abdul Hamid I became Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph of Islam.

1789 – The first American novel, The Power of Sympathy or the Triumph of Nature Founded in Truth, is printed in Boston.

1793 – After being found guilty of treason by the French National Convention, Louis XVI of France is executed by guillotine.

1840 – Jules Dumont d'Urville discovers Adélie Land, Antarctica. 

January 22

 1689 – The Convention Parliament convenes to determine whether James II and VII, the last Roman Catholic monarch of England, Ireland and Scotland, had vacated the thrones when he fled to France in 1688.

1824 – The Ashantis defeat British forces in the Gold Coast.

January 23

1719 – The Principality of Liechtenstein is created within the Holy Roman Empire.

1789 – Georgetown College, the first Catholic university in the United States, is founded in Georgetown, Maryland (now a part of Washington, D.C.)

1793 – Second Partition of Poland.

1795 – After an extraordinary charge across the frozen Zuiderzee, the French cavalry captured 14 Dutch ships and 850 guns, in a rare occurrence of a battle between ships and cavalry 

January 24

1679 – King Charles II of England dissolves the Cavalier Parliament.

1739 – Victory of Tarapur Fort, India, was achieved by Peshva warrior Chimnaji Appa by defeating Portuguese forces

1742 – Charles VII Albert becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

1758 – During the Seven Years' War the leading burghers of Königsberg submit to Elizabeth of Russia, thus forming Russian Prussia (until 1763)

1817 – Crossing of the Andes: Many soldiers of Juan Gregorio de las Heras are captured during the Action of Picheuta.

1835 – Slaves in Salvador da Bahia, Brazil, stage a revolt, which is instrumental in ending slavery there 50 years later. 

January 25

1704 – The Battle of Ayubale results in the destruction of most of the Spanish missions in Florida.

1755 – Moscow University is established on Tatiana Day.

1765 – Port Egmont, the first British settlement in the Falkland Islands at the southern tip of South America, is founded.

1787 – Shays' Rebellion: The rebellion's largest confrontation, outside the Springfield Armory, results in the killing of four rebels and the wounding of twenty.

1791 – The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act of 1791 and splits the old Province of Quebec into Upper Canada and Lower Canada.

1792 – The London Corresponding Society is founded.

January 26

1699 – Treaty of Karlowitz is signed.

1700 – The magnitude 9 Cascadia Earthquake takes place off the west coast of North America, as evidenced by Japanese records.

1736 – Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne.

1788 – The British First Fleet, led by Arthur Phillip, sails into Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) to establish Sydney, the first permanent European settlement on the continent. Commemorated as Australia Day.

1808 – Rum Rebellion, the only successful (albeit short-lived) armed takeover of the government in Australia.

1837 – Michigan is admitted as the 26th U.S. state.

1838 – Tennessee enacts the first prohibition law in the United States 

January 27

 1695 – Mustafa II becomes the Ottoman sultan and Caliph of Islam in Istanbul on the death of Ahmed II. Mustafa rules until his abdication in 1703.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: Henry Knox's "noble train of artillery" arrives in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1785 – The University of Georgia is founded, the first public university in the United States.

1825 – The U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the "Trail of Tears".

January 28

 1701 – The Chinese storm Dartsedo.

1724 – The Russian Academy of Sciences is founded in St. Petersburg by Peter the Great, and implemented by Senate decree. It is called the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences until 1917.

1754 – Horace Walpole coins the word serendipity in a letter to Horace Mann.

1760 – Pownal, Vermont is created by Benning Wentworth as one of the New Hampshire Grants.

1813 – Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice is first published in the United Kingdom.

1820 – A Russian expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev discovers the Antarctic continent, approaching the Antarctic coast.

1821 – Alexander Island is first discovered by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen.

January 29

1676 – Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia.

1814 – War of the Sixth Coalition: France defeats Russia and Prussia in the Battle of Brienne.

1819 – Stamford Raffles lands on the island of Singapore.

1834 – US President Andrew Jackson orders first use of federal soldiers to suppress a labor dispute. 

January 30

 1703 – The Forty-seven Ronin, under the command of Ōishi Kuranosuke, avenge the death of their master.

1789 – Tây Sơn forces emerge victorious against Qing armies and liberate the capital Thăng Long.

1790 – The first boat specializing as a lifeboat is tested on the River Tyne.

1806 – The original Lower Trenton Bridge (also called the Trenton Makes the World Takes Bridge), which spans the Delaware River between Morrisville, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey, is opened.

1820 – Edward Bransfield sights the Trinity Peninsula and claims the discovery of Antarctica.

1826 – The Menai Suspension Bridge, considered the world's first modern suspension bridge, connecting the Isle of Anglesey to the north West coast of Wales, is opened.

1835 – In the first assassination attempt against a President of the United States, Richard Lawrence attempts to shoot president Andrew Jackson, but fails and is subdued by a crowd, including several congressmen as well as Jackson himself.

January 31

1747 – The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Lock Hospital.

1801 – John Marshall is appointed the Chief Justice of the United States.

1814 – Gervasio Antonio de Posadas becomes Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (present-day Argentina).