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Article Index


Philip Schuyler

SCHUYLER PHILIP was born in New England in 1732. He was commissioned a Major General and had no superior in energy, vigilance and courage. For some time previous to the approach of Burgoyne he ably discharged the multifarious duties of the northern command. When that proud General advanced he found traces of Schuyler's industry at every point and his scouts in all directions. Bridges were demolished--the roads blocked with trees--the navigation of Wood creek deranged--supplies removed and his army kept in constant alarm by the light troops of Schuyler who laid the foundation of the victory that virtually saved our Independence. This opinion was often expressed by a revered uncle of mine who was with Schuyler during all his services in the north. At the very time this General was prepared to snatch the laurels of victory from Burgoyne's brow and place them on his own--Gates superseded him. He loved his country too well to be governed by the strict rules of military etiquette at that momentous point of time. He surrendered the command to him with all the papers and information he had acquired, with these burning remarks--"I have done all that could be done, as far as the means were in my power, to injure the enemy and to inspire confidence in the soldiers of our army and I flatter myself with some success--but the palm of victory is denied me and it is left to you, General, to reap the fruits of my labor. I will not fail to second your views and my devotion to my country will cause me, with alacrity, to obey your orders." This language would have been more terrible to me than a thousand crashing thunder bolts. It would have taken more than the laurels of Saratoga to heal the deep gashes my mind would have received from this keen sarcasm of the injured but patriotic and magnanimous Schuyler. A sarcastic remark from Schuyler to Gen. Burgoyne when dining with Gates soon after the surrender is worthy of record. The British General had caused Schuyler's house to be reduced to ashes and attempted an apology which was interrupted by the other--"Make no excuses General. I feel myself more than compensated by the pleasure of meeting you at this table." Gen. Schuyler was in all respects a first rate man. Jealously had put slander in motion against him which was the reason he was superseded. Investigation cleared away the fog from the minds of those in power but did not heal the wounds in his. He was subsequently a member of the Continental Congress and served 12 years in the United States Senate under the Federal Constitution. He died in 1804.

Theodore Sedgewick

SEDGEWICK THEODORE began his earthly career at Hartford Conn. in 1746. He became a strong lawyer and firm supporter of the cause of Liberty. He was frequently in the legislature of Massachusetts and a member of the Continental Congress. He was a member of the convention of his adopted state that sanctioned the Federal Constitution and was subsequently a member of the United States Senate. At the end of his term he was placed upon the Supreme Bench of Massachusetts and dignified his station until 1813 when he was summoned from earth and its toils to the dread tribunal of the great Jehovah.

Johnathan Dickinson Sergeant

SERGEANT JONATHAN DICKINSON was born at Princeton, New Jersey in 1746. He became an eminent lawyer and a strong advocate for American rights. He was elected a member of Congress in February 1776 and continued in that body until July 1777 when he was made Attorney General of Pennsylvania. Why he did not sign the Declaration of Independence is a problem I should like to see solved. In the Connecticut controversy he was employed by his adopted state to advocate her interests. When the yellow fever raged at Philadelphia in 1793 he was a very efficient member in the Board of Health and fell a victim to that fearful disease in October. His private virtues shone conspicuously through his whole life--his country, the poor, the widow and the orphan deeply mourned his premature death.

William Smallwood

SMALLWOOD WILLIAM was a citizen of Maryland and a brave Brigadier General in the Continental army--a member of the old Congress and governor of his state. In every station and in all the departments of life he performed his whole duty and enjoyed the love and confidence of his friends and country until 1792 when he cancelled the debt of nature and descended peacefully to the tomb.

Baron De Von Stuben

STEUBEN FRANCIS WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BARON DE commenced his noble life in Prussia in 1733. He became perfect master of military tactics at an early age in the Prussian army--was an Aid to Frederic the great with the rank of Lieutenant General and was in constant service in his native land until he embarked for America. He landed in New Hampshire in 1777 and was soon after appointed Inspector General of the American army with the rank of Major General. With untiring industry and great energy he rapidly introduced an effective system of discipline, tactics and evolutions, that essentially improved the whole army and rendered it much more efficient in the field. He participated in the battle of Monmouth and had charge of the entrenchments at the siege of Yorktown. At the conclusion of peace his valuable services were partially rewarded in the grant of a farm by the state of New Jersey and 16000 acres of land in Oneida county New York granted by that state. He died on his farm near New York city November 28th 1794.

Caleb Strong

STRONG CALEB was born at Northampton, Mass. in 1744. He was a profound counsellor at the bar of his native town--an able advocate in the cause of Independence. He was a prominent member of the Committee of Safety that was virtually the government of the State for some time. He was a member of the legislature and fearlessly espoused the cause of Liberty. He was a member of the convention that framed the Constitution of Massachusetts and of the one that formed that of the United States. He was elected to the United States Senate and was governor of his native State eleven years. He was an efficient public officer, a devoted patriot, an esteemed citizen--an honest man. He died in 1820 sincerely mourned by his country and most deeply regretted by those who knew him best.

John Sullivan

SULLIVAN JOHN entered on his earthly career in Maine in 1741. His father came from that country called by Aristotle and Strabo _Irene_--by Cæsar, Tacitus and Pliny, _Hibernia_--by Mela and others _Juverna_ all of which names may be traced to the original--_Ir_, _Eri_, _Erin_--now called Ireland. Gen. Sullivan left a lucrative practice at the bar and was commissioned a brigadier-general in 1775 and the next year was raised to the rank of major-general. On the 4th of June 1776 he superseded Arnold in Canada and on the death of Gen. Thomas he was left in command of all the American troops then there. Owing to the illness of Gen. Greene Sullivan was put in command of his division on Long Island and was taken prisoner at the battle on the 27th of August. On the 22d of August 1777 he planned a successful expedition against Staten Island. He acted a brave part at the battles of Brandywine, Germantown and in every place where he was engaged. In 1778 he was placed in command of the troops at Rhode Island and commenced a siege on Newport in August of that year in anticipation of the co-operating aid of the French fleet which was prevented by a storm. This compelled him to raise the siege at once and retreat from a superior force which he effected with consummate skill and success after repulsing the pursuing enemy on the 29th of that month. The next year he commanded the successful but cruel expedition against the Six Nations of Indians. He penetrated the very heart of their country, killed and captured considerable numbers, burnt eighteen of their towns, many of their isolated wigwams--destroyed 160,000 bushels of their corn, all their vegetables, fruits and everything that could be found to sustain life. The expedition was suggested in consequence of the Wyoming massacre. It can be sanctioned by the law of retaliation--no other. Gen. Sullivan was subsequently a member of the Continental Congress for three years--president of New Hampshire and in 1789 was appointed a judge of the District Court which office he dignified until the 23d of January 1795 when he cancelled the debt of nature and slumbered in death. He was very efficient in quelling Shay's insurrection. In every sphere of life he exhibited talents of a high order and left a public fame and private reputation untarnished by corruption.

James Sullivan

SULLIVAN JAMES was born at Berwick, Me. in 1744. He became a bright ornament of the bar and an able advocate of the cause of freedom. He was an active member of the legislature--of the Provincial Congress and of the Continental Congress. He was a judge of Probate and in 1790 was appointed attorney-general of his State. In 1807-8 he was elected governor of Massachusetts and died in December 1808. He was an admirable model of human excellence, adorned those qualities that dignify a man and crowned his life with the lucid exemplification of primitive Christianity.

Edward Stevens

STEVENS EDWARD commenced his earthly career in Culpepper County, Va. and his bold military achievements at the battle of the Great Bridge near Norfolk, Va. where he commanded the rifle battalion with a bravery and skill that elicited general commendation. Soon after that he was placed in command of the 10th Virginia regiment and repaired to the headquarters of Washington. At the battle of Brandywine his skill and courage in covering the retreat of the Americans astonished friends and foes and saved the army from capture. At the action of Germantown his gallantry was publicly applauded by Washington upon the field of glory. He was subsequently placed in command of the Virginia Brigade and fought with great bravery at Camden under Gates, at Guilford Court House under Greene and at the siege of Yorktown under Washington. From the formation of the republican Constitution of Virginia to 1790 he was constantly a member of her legislature. He was a man of untarnished reputation, substantial talent and usefulness. His patriotism soared above all party considerations--he could not be swayed by demagogues. He went for his whole country--the Constitution and our UNION for ever. He looked upon the Federal Constitution as the Jews did upon their ark--the repository of the safeguards and glory of our Republic. He closed his useful life at his residence in Culpepper, Va. on the 17th day of August 1820--ripe in years and full of honors.