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A stucco for walls, &c. may be formed of the grout or putty, made of good stone-lime, or the lime of cockle-shells, which is better, properly tempered and sufficiently beat, mixed with sharp grit-sand, in a proportion which depends on the strength of the lime: drift-sand is best for this purpose, and it will derive advantage from being dried on an iron plate or kiln, so as not to burn; for thus the mortar would be discolored.

When this is properly compounded, it should be put up in small parcels against walls, or otherwise, to mellow, as the workmen term it; reduced again to a soft putty, or paste, and spread thin on the walls without any undercoat, and well troweled. A succeeding coat should be laid on, before the first is quite dry, which will prevent joints of brick-work appearing through it. Much depends upon the workmen giving it sufficient labor, and troweling it down. If this stucco, when dry, is laid over with boiling linseed oil, it will last a long time, and not be liable, when once hardened, to the accidents to which common stucco is liable. Liardet's, or, as it is commonly called, _Adams oil-cement_, or stucco, is prepared in the following manner: for the first coat, take twenty-one pounds of fine whiting, or oyster-shells, or any other sea-shells calcined, or plaster of Paris, or any calcareous material calcined and pounded, or any absorbent material whatever, proper for the purpose; add white or red lead at pleasure, deducting from the other absorbent materials in proportion to the white or red lead added; to which put four quarts, beer measure, of oil; and mix them together with a grinding-mill, or any levigating machine: and afterwards mix and beat up the same well with twenty-eight quarts, beer measure, of any sand or gravel, or of both, mixed and sifted, or of marble or stone pounded, or of brick-dust, or of any kind of metallic or mineral powders, or of any solid material whatever, fit for the purpose. 

For the second coat, take sixteen pounds and a half of super-fine whiting, or oyster-shells, or any sea-shells calcined, &c. as for the first coat; add sixteen pounds and a half of white or red lead, to which put six quarts and a half of oil, wine measure, and mix them together as before: afterwards mix and beat up the same well with thirty quarts, wine measure, of fine sand or gravel sifted, or stone or marble pounded, or pyrites, or any kind of metallic or mineral powder, &c. This composition requires a greater proportion of sand, gravel, or other solids, according to the nature of the work, or the uses to which it is to be applied. If it be required to have the composition colored, add to the above ingredients such a proportion of painter's colors, as will be necessary to give the tint or color required. In making the composition, the best linseed or hemp-seed, or other oils proper for the purpose, are to be used, boiled or raw, with drying ingredients, as the nature of the work, the season, or the climate requires; and in some cases, bees' wax may be substituted in place of oil: all the absorbent and solid materials must be kiln-dried. If the composition is to be of any other color than white, the lead may be omitted, by taking the full proportion of the other absorbents; and also white or red lead may be substituted alone, instead of any other absorbent material. The first coat of this composition is to be laid on with a trowel, and floated to an even surface with a rule or darby, (i. e. a handle-float.) 

The second coat, after it is laid on with a trowel, when the other is nearly dry, should be worked down and smoothed with floats edged with horn, or any hard smooth substance that does not stain. It may be proper, previously to laying on the composition, to moisten the surface on which it is to be laid by a brush with the same sort of oil and ingredients which pass through the levigating machine, reduced to a more liquid state, in order to make the composition adhere the better. This composition admits of being modeled or cast in moulds, in the same manner as plasterers or statuaries model or cast their stucco work. It also admits of being painted upon, and adorned with landscape, or ornamental, or figure-painting, as well as plain painting.

--To make an excellent stucco, which will adhere to wood work, take a bushel of the best stone lime, a pound of yellow ocher, and a quarter of a pound of brown umber, all in fine powder. Mix them to a proper thickness, with a sufficient quantity of hot water, but not boiling, and lay it on with a new white-washer's brush. If the wall be quite smooth, one or two coats will do; but each must be dry before the next is put on. The month of March is the best season for doing this.


The most beautiful white-wash is made of clean good lime mixed with skim milk instead of water. For Blue wash, put four pounds of blue vitriol into an iron or brass pot, with a pound of the best whiting, and a gallon of water. Let it boil an hour, stirring it all the time. Then pour it into an earthen pan, and set it by for a day or two till the color is settled. Pour off the water, and mix the color with the white-washer's size. Wash the walls over three or four times, according as it may be necessary. To make Yellow wash, dissolve in soft water over the fire equal quantities of umber, bright ocher, and blue black. Add as much white-wash as is necessary for the work, and stir it all together. If either cast predominates, put in more of the others, till the proper tint is obtained.