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Article Index

VACCINE INOCULATION 

One of the most important discoveries in the history of animal nature is that of the Cow Pox, which was publicly announced by Dr. Jenner in the year 1798, though it had for ages been known by some of the dairymen in the west of England. This malady appears on the nipples of cows in the form of irregular pustules, and it is now ascertained that persons inoculated with the matter taken from them are thereby rendered incapable of the small pox infection. Innumerable experiments have been made in different countries, in Asia and America, with nearly the same success; and by a series of facts duly authenticated, in many thousands of instances, it is fully proved that the vaccine inoculation is a milder and safer disease than the inoculated small pox; and while the one has saved its tens of thousands, the other is going on to save its millions.

With a view of extending the beneficial effects of the new inoculation to the poor, a new dispensary, called the Vaccine Institution, has been established in London, where the operation is performed gratis, and the vaccine matter may be had by those who wish to promote this superior method of inoculation. The practice itself is very simple. Nothing more is necessary than making a small puncture in the skin of the arm, and applying the matter. But as it is of great consequence that the matter be good, and not too old, it is recommended to apply for the assistance of those who make it a part of their business, as the expense is very trifling.

VARNISH FOR BOOTS 

To render boots and shoes impervious to the wet, take a pint of linseed oil, half a pound of mutton suet, six or eight ounces of bees' wax, and a small piece of rosin. Boil all together in a pipkin, and let it cool to milk warm. Then with a hair brush lay it on new boots or shoes; but it is better still to lay it on the leather before the articles are made. The shoes or boots should also be brushed over with it, after they come from the maker. If old boots or shoes are to be varnished, the mixture is to be laid on when the leather is perfectly dry.

VARNISH FOR BRASS 

Put into a pint of alcohol, an ounce of turmeric powder, two drams of arnatto, and two drams of saffron. Agitate the mixture during seven days, and filter it into a clean bottle. Now add three ounces of clean seed-lac, and agitate the bottle every day for fourteen days. When the lacquer is used, the pieces of brass if large are to be first warmed, so as to heat the hand, and the varnish is to be applied with a brush. Smaller pieces may be dipped in the varnish, and then drained by holding them for a minute over the bottle. This varnish, when applied to rails for desks, has a most beautiful appearance, like that of burnished gold.

VARNISH FOR DRAWINGS 

Mix together two ounces of spirits of turpentine, and one ounce of Canada balsam. The print is first to be sized with a solution of isinglass water, and dried; the varnish is then to be applied with a camel-hair brush. But for oil paintings, a different composition is prepared. A small piece of white sugar candy is dissolved and mixed with a spoonful of brandy; the whites of eggs are then beaten to a froth, and the clear part is poured off and incorporated with the mixture. The paintings are then brushed over with the varnish, which is easily washed off when they are required to be cleaned again, and on this account it will be far superior to any other kind of varnish for this purpose.

VARNISH FOR FANS 

To make a varnish for fans and cases, dissolve two ounces of gum-mastic, eight ounces of gum-sandaric, in a quart of alcohol, and then add four ounces of Venice turpentine.

VARNISH FOR FIGURES 

Fuse in a crucible half an ounce of tin, with the same quantity of bismuth. When melted, add half an ounce of mercury; and when perfectly combined, take the mixture from the fire and cool it. This substance, mixed with the white of an egg, forms a very beautiful varnish for plaster figures.

VARNISH FOR FURNITURE 

This is made of white wax melted in the oil of petrolium. A light coat of this mixture is laid on the wood with a badger's brush, while a little warm, and the oil will speedily evaporate. A coat of wax will be left behind, which should afterwards be polished with a woollen cloth.

VARNISH FOR HATS 

The shell of the hat having been prepared, dyed, and formed in the usual manner, is to be stiffened, when perfectly dry, with the following composition, worked upon the inner surface. One pound of gum kino, eight ounces of gum elemi, three pounds of gum olibanum, three pounds of gum copal, two pounds of gum juniper, one pound of gum ladanum, one pound of gum mastic, ten pounds of shell lac, and eight ounces of frankincense. These are pounded small and mixed together; three gallons of alcohol are then placed in an earthen vessel to receive the pounded gums, and the vessel is then to be frequently agitated. When the gums are sufficiently dissolved by this process, a pint of liquid ammonia is added to the mixture, with an ounce of oil of lavender, and a pound of gum myrrh and gum opoponax, dissolved in three pints of spirit of wine. 

The whole of the ingredients being perfectly incorporated and free from lumps, constitute the patent water-proof mixture with which the shell of the hat is stiffened. When the shell has been dyed, shaped, and rendered perfectly dry, its inner surface and the under side of the brim are varnished with this composition by means of a brush. The hat is then placed in a warm drying-room until it becomes hard. This process is repeated several times, taking care that the varnish does not penetrate through the shell, so as to appear on the outside. To allow the perspiration of the head to evaporate, small holes are to be pierced through the crown of the hat from the inside outward; and the nap of silk, beaver, or other fur, is to be laid on by the finisher in the usual way. That on the under side of the brim, which has been prepared as above, is to be attached with copal varnish.

VARNISH FOR PAINTINGS 

Mix six ounces of pure mastic gum with the same quantity of pounded glass, and introduce the compound into a bottle containing a pint of oil of turpentine. Now add half an ounce of camphor bruised in a mortar. When the mastic is dissolved, put in an ounce of Venice turpentine, and agitate the whole till the turpentine is perfectly dissolved. When the varnish is to be applied to oil paintings, it must be gently poured from the glass sediment, or filtered through a muslin.

VARNISH FOR PALING 

A varnish for any kind of coarse wood work is made of tar ground up with Spanish brown, to the consistence of common paint, and then spread on the wood with a large brush as soon as made, to prevent its growing too stiff and hard. The colour may be changed by mixing a little white lead, whiting, or ivory black, with the Spanish brown. For pales and weather boards this varnish is superior to paint, and much cheaper than what is commonly used for that purpose. It is an excellent preventive against wet and weather, and if laid on smooth wood it will have a good gloss.

VARNISH FOR SILKS 

To one quart of cold-drawn linseed oil, add half an ounce of litharge. Boil them for half an hour, and then add half an ounce of copal varnish. While the ingredients are heating in a copper vessel, put in one ounce of rosin, and a few drops of neatsfoot oil, stirring the whole together with a knife. When cool, it is ready for use. This varnish will set, or keep its place on the silk in four hours, the silk may then be turned and varnished on the other side.

VARNISH FOR STRAW HATS 

For straw or chip hats, put half an ounce of black sealing-wax powdered into two ounces of spirits of wine or turpentine, and place it near the fire till the wax is dissolved. If the hat has lost its colour or turned brown, it may first be brushed over with writing ink, and well dried. The varnish is then to be laid on warm with a soft brush, in the sun or before the fire, and it will give it a new gloss which will resist the wet.

VARNISH FOR TINWARE 

Put three ounces of seed-lac, two drams of dragon's blood, and one ounce of turmeric powder, into a pint of well-rectified spirits. Let the whole remain for fourteen days, but during that time, agitate the bottle once a day at least. When properly combined, strain the liquid through a piece of muslin. This varnish is called lacquer; it is brushed over tinware to give it a resemblance to brass.

VARNISH FOR WOOD 

The composition which is the best adapted to preserve wood from the decay occasioned both by the wet and the dry rot, is as follows. Melt twelve ounces of rosin in an iron kettle, and when melted, add eight ounces of roll brimstone. When both are in a liquid state, pour in three gallons of train oil. Heat the whole slowly, gradually adding four ounces of bees' wax in small pieces, and keep the mixture stirring. As soon as the solid ingredients are dissolved, add as much Spanish brown, red or yellow ochre, ground fine with some of the oil, as will give the whole a deep shade. Lay on this varnish as hot and thin as possible; and some days after the first coat becomes dry, give a second. This will preserve planks and other wood for ages.