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On August 30 (19), the Northern War began between Russia and Sweden

"The Northern War of 1700-1721 is Russia's war against Sweden over the access to the Baltic Sea, Russia that has been cut off from the Baltic and, consequently, from Western Europe, lagged behind in the economic and cultural development from Western European countries. diplomatic struggle to seize the Baltic coast in the 16th and 17th centuries remained unsuccessful, Sweden was the main opponent of Russia in this struggle, which by the beginning of the 18th century became one of the most powerful powers in Europe, whose possession extended to Finland, Estland, Leaf yang, the former Russian lands - Ingermanland (Ingria) and Karelia, Northern Pomerania, the duchies of Bremen, Verdun and Wismar in Northern Germany. The nobility and burghers supported the aggressive aspirations of Swedish absolutism. In the wars of the 17th century, Sweden created one of the foremost armies of the time to armament and tactics.

Preparing for the struggle against Sweden, Peter I in 1699 concluded an alliance with Denmark and the elector of Saxony (he is also a Polish king) Augustus II. In 1700, the troops of the Danish King Christian V invaded the possessions of Sweden's ally Hertz. Holstein and Augustus II with the Saxon troops came to Riga. Peter I, having waited for an armistice with Turkey, on August 19 (30), 1700, declared war on Sweden and moved troops to Narva. The moment to speak against Sweden was chosen successfully since the main Western European powers were distracted by the brewing conflict over the Spanish inheritance. But soon the anti-Swedish coalition (the so-called Northern Union) suffered major setbacks (read useful article at this site).

The Swedish King Karl XII showed extraordinary generic talent, determination, and quickness in action. With the support of the Anglo-Dutch navy, Swedish troops landed in Denmark and defeated her. Denmark was forced to conclude the Travendal Peace of 1700 on August 7 (18). Then Charles XII landed in Pernow (Pärnu) and, having learned that Augustus II had removed the siege of Riga and retired to Courland, moved against the Russian army (35 thousand), besieging Narva.

On November 19 (30) in the Battle of Narva in 1700 the Swedes routed the non-ridden Russians. troops, to-rye in disorder retreated, having lost all artillery. Then Charles XII came out against Augustus II, the struggle against which dragged on. This was used by Peter I to strengthen the army and build the fleet. At the same time, Russian troops conducted actions against the Swedes in Livonia and Ingria <...>

The successful completion of the North Won was of great importance for the subsequent development of Russia. She returned the Russian lands seized earlier by the Swedes and purchased the Baltic coast from Vyborg to Riga. The struggle for access to the sea was completed, which made it possible to establish strong economic ties with Western Europe. Russia entered the international arena as a powerful power, which became a full-fledged party in European politics. Sweden lost the importance of a great power.

The Northern War played an important role in the development of Russian military art. In its course, the Russian regular army was formed, the principles of training and education of the troops were formed, taking into account the national character of the army, and command control organs were created. The Russian strategy for the Northern War is characterized by taking into account the political situation in determining the objectives of the war and individual campaigns; the correct definition of the main strategic goal and the choice of means and methods of action in accordance with their capabilities and situation; a combination of determination (Lesnaya, Poltava) and caution (Grodno, campaign 1708); correct evaluation of the enemy.

During the war, the troops learned and improved the linear tactics adopted in the advanced European armies, introducing into it the national elements: the widespread use of bayonet impact along with fire, the use of linear battle formations taking into account the terrain, and the conduct of combat on the rough and closed terrain. Organizationally formed the main kind of troops - infantry, cavalry, and artillery. Large cavalry units were used for independent actions (Sheremetev in 1702-04, Menshikov in 1705-08). The Russian Baltic Fleet was created and strengthened, which played a big role in the war, especially at its last stage. The galley fleet, well adapted to the skerry character of the Finnish-Swedish coast, acquired special significance. The interaction of the fleet with ground forces resulted in original tactical forms. The Northern War laid the foundations of the national Russian school of military art. "